Place-names: Arable Farming
Ainmeanan-Àite: Cuir is Buain

Is ann an ceann an ear Ghlaschu a tha Achadh an t-Seagail. Nuair a chaidh an t-ainm a chlàradh leis an t-Suirbhidh Òrdanais ann am meadhan an 19mh linn, bha e ga chur air grunn taighean sa cheàrn anns a bheil Sràid Corbett, Cùirt Corbett agus Geata Corbett san latha an-diugh aig ceann a deas Cladh Crois na Cìse.

Is gann gun lorgar ainm-àite ann an Glaschu a tha cho cliùiteach ri Achadh an t-Seagail. Is coltach gur h-e a tha aig bun ‘Auchenshoogle’, an t-àite anns a bheil an dà chuid ‘Oor Wullie’ agus ‘The Broons’ suidhichte. Choisinn an t-ainm-àite cliù cuideachd leis gun robh e aig ceann slighe-trama Ghlaschu.

Bha am facal achadh ga chur air talamh treabhta bho shean agus tha seann riochdan Achadh an t-Seagail a’ nochdadh gun robh seagal ga chur san àite seo, mar a bha ann am Baile Seagalach, is coltach (seallaibh gu h-ìseal). Bha meas mòr aig Gàidheil Ghlaschu air achadh sna h-ainmeanan-àite aca. Tha e follaiseach gun robh achadh ga chur air tuathanasan beaga gu h-ionadach, gu h-àraid air tuathanasan dàrnach a bha air an dèanamh as ùr nuair a roinneadh tuathanasan mòra. Gu dearbh, lorgar seo ann an tòrr sgìreachdan air feadh na dùthcha. Tha Auch- bitheanta ann an iar-riochdan nan ainmeanan-àite anns a bheil achadh na chiad mhìr. Is e achadh a tha aig bun nan ainmeanan seo leanas air crìoch a tuath baile Ghlaschu, mar a tha e san latha an-diugh: Achadh nan Àirne (Auchinairn), le àirne (‘sloe’), is coltach; agus Achadh nan Leac (Auchinleck), le leac, is coltach.

“Is gann gun lorgar ainm-àite ann an Glaschu a tha cho cliùiteach ri Achadh an t-Seagail.”

Achadh an t-Seagail

Auchenshuggle

Auchenshuggle (1816 & 1822)

achadh + seagal

‘rye-field/-farm’

 

Auchenshuggle is in the east end of Glasgow. In the mid 19th century, the Ordnance Survey recorded that this place-name referred to a few houses in the area of modern Corbett Street, Corbett Court and Corbett Court at the south end of what is now Tollcross Cemetery.

Auchenshuggle must be one of Glasgow’s most popular place-names. It is thought to have inspired the fictional place-name Auchenshoogle, the setting of the comic strips ‘Oor Wullie’ and ‘The Broons’. It also gained fame as the final stop on Glasgow’s tramway.

The Gaelic word achadh ‘field’ or ‘farm’ usually appears in place-names in lowland Scotland as ‘Auch-’ and it is popular in the Glasgow area. There is a cluster of achadh-names in the parish of Cadder on the northern outskirts of the modern city, such as Auchengeich, Auchengree, Auchinairn, Auchinleck and Auchinloch. Achadh is now the standard word in modern Gaelic for a field but it used to be specifically used to describe arable; in other words, land capable of being ploughed and suitable for growing crops. Like the popular Gaelic word gart, meaning ‘enclosure’ or ‘farm’, achadh was often used to describe smaller, secondary farms split off from larger farms. Place-name evidence tells us that rye was probably also cultivated around 6.5 miles north-west of Auchenshuggle in Balshagray (see below).

Tha tòrr ainmeanan sràide aig ceann an ear Pàirc Victoria ann an ceann an iar Ghlaschu anns a bheil an t-ainm-àite seo glèidhte. Is ann aig toiseach an 16mh linn a chaidh an t-ainm a chlàradh an toiseach ann an leabhar màil sgìreachd-easbaig Ghlaschu. Ann am meadhan an 19mh linn, chaidh dà thuathanas a chlàradh air an cuireamaid Baile Seagalach Uachdarach agus Baile Seagalach Ìochdarach san latha an-diugh, dh’fhaoidteadh. Tha nuadh-thaigheadas sa cheàrn anns an robh Baile Seagalach Uachdarach bho shean air Rathad Mitre eadar Craobhraid Eastcote agus Craobhraid Orleans. Is gann gum faicear làrach an tuathanais ìochdaraich a-nis ann an ceann a deas Pàirc Victoria, mu 30 meatair tuath air an rathad air a bheil Victoria Park Drive South san latha an-diugh, ach tha a làrach comharraichte an seo air seann chlàran-dùthcha.

Gu h-iongantach, chan eil baile idir bitheanta ann an ainmeanan-àite Ghlaschu. Dh’fhaoidteadh gu bheil e ri lorg am measg seann riochdan Baile Nighean Sheadna ach chan eil seo idir follaiseach san riochd ‘Shettleston’. Chithear dà fheart cànain ionadach sna seann riochdan gu h-àrd de Bhaile Seagalach: ‘Bal-’ > ‘Baw-’ (coimeas Balschagre agus Bawschagre) agus ‘a’ > ‘e’ (coimeas –schagre agus –chegry). Chithear a’ chiad fheart seo cuideachd ann an Dail Bheithe a chaidh a chlàradh mar

Dawbeth ann an 1515. Is coltach gun deach seagal a chur is a bhuain cuideachd ann an Achadh an t-Seagail, mu 6.5 mìle an ear-dheas air Baile Seagalach.

“Is ann aig toiseach an 16mh linn a chaidh an t-ainm seo a chlàradh an toiseach ann an leabhar màil sgìreachd-easbaig Ghlaschu.”

Baile Seagalach

Balshagray

Balschagre (1515 & 1521); Bawschagre (1521); Balchegry (1525)

baile + seagalach (?)

‘rye-farm’ (?)

 

This place-name survives in modern street-names like Balshagray Avenue, Balshagray Place, Balshagray Lane, Balshagray Drive and Balshagray Crescent at the east end of Victoria Park in the city’s west end. However, the place-name is at least as old as the early 16th century, as historical forms such as Balschagre, recorded in 1515, tell us. The farms of High Balshagray and Low Balshagray were recorded by the Ordnance Survey in the mid 19th century. The site of the old farm of High Balshagray is in a modern residential area on what is now Mitre Road, between Eastcote Avenue and Orleans Avenue. The site of the farm of Low Balshagray is in the southern part of Victoria Park, around 30 metres north of what is now Victoria Park Drive South.

The Gaelic word baile ‘farm’ is very common in Scottish place-names but, interestingly, it is rare in Glasgow. It may be found in the earliest recorded forms of Shettleston but baile is certainly not recognisable in the modern form of this place-name. Balshagray is one of a number of Glasgow place-names in which local pronunciation of ‘l’ as ‘w’ can be seen in its historical forms. This is also a feature of Dalbeth, recorded as Dawbeth in 1515. Place-name evidence tells us that rye was also cultivated around 6.5 miles south-east of Balshagray in Auchenshuggle

“this Gaelic place-name is at least as old as the early 16th century”

Is e an t-ainm-àite seo a tha aig bun ainmeanan ann an ceann a tuath Ghlaschu den leithid ‘Keppoch Street’ agus ‘Keppochhill’. Ann am meadhan an 19mh linn, is ann air muclach mòr ionadach a bha an t-ainm-àite seo gu chur. Is ann sa cheàrn anns a bheil Sràid Bardowie san latha an-diugh a bha am muclach seo.

Ged a bha muclach an seo san 19mh linn, tha e glè choltach gun deach an talamh seo a dhì-choillteachadh is an uair sin a chur fo bhàrr sna meadhan-aoisean. Is e sin as adhbhar ’s gu bheil Ceapach air an àite agus ceapach ga chur san àbhaist air pìos talmhainn air an robh ceapan craoibhe a chaidh a chur fo bhàrr. Is e seo a chithear ann an àiteachan eile ann an Alba air a bheil an t-aon ainm.

“tha e glè choltach gun deach an talamh seo a dhì-choillteachadh is an uair sin a chur fo bhàrr sna meadhan-aoisean”

Ceapach

Keppoch

Capoch (1510); Keppok (1521)

ceapach

‘cleared tillage plot’

 

Glaswegians will know the name Keppoch in the likes of Keppoch Street and in the name Keppochhill in the north of the city. In the mid 19th century, the Ordnance Survey records that Keppoch was at that time an “extensive farming establishment for rearing pigs”. The site of the old farm lies on both sides of what is now Bardowie Street, roughly between Balgair Street and Sunnylaw Street on the north side of Bardowie Street, and between Hobart Street and Carbeth Street on the south side of Bardowie Street.

Although it was a pig-farm in the mid 19th century, the land of Keppoch is likely to have been used for growing crops in the medieval period, after the area was cleared of trees. A tillage plot cleared of woodland is the typical meaning of the Gaelic word ceapach in place-names elsewhere in Scotland.

Aithnichear an t-ainm-àite seo mar ainm ospadail ann an ceann an iar Ghlaschu. Ann am meadhan an 19mh linn, chaidh an t-seann tuathanas air an robh an t-ainm seo bho shean a chlàradh leis an t-Suirbhidh Òrdanais. Aig an àm sin, is e mèinneadairean a bha a’ fuireach san tuathanas. Is coltach gun robh iad ag obair ann an slocan cloiche-iarainn ionadach; chaidh còig de na slocan seo a chlàradh leis an t-Suirbhidh Òrdanais ann an 1865. Bha tobar ri taobh an t-seann tuathanais cuideachd air a chlàradh air a’ chlàr-dùthcha seo. Tha nuadh-thaigheadas an-diugh air làrach an t-seann tuathanais.

Tha ainmeanan-àite a’ nochdadh gun robh am facal gart sna meadhan-aoisean ga chur gu tric air tuathanasan beaga, gu h-àraid air tuathanasan dàrnach a bha air an dèanamh as ùr nuair a roinneadh tuathanasan mòra. Faodar achadh agus gart a choimeas mar sin (seallaibh air Achadh an t-Seagail, gu h-àrd). Cha robh gart ga chur gu sònraichte air arbhar ann an ainmeanan-àite sna meadhan-aoisean, mar a tha e san àbhaist san latha an-diugh, ach is inntinneach gu bheil facail dàimheach den leithid gort agus goirtean againn ann an Gàidhlig an latha an-diugh aig a bheil iomadh seagh. Ann an cuid de dh’àiteachan air a’ Ghalldachd, tha e coltach gun robh gart ga chur gu sònraichte air bailtean a chaidh ùr-thuineachadh agus a dhì-choillteachadh. Is coltach gu bheil na h-ainmeanan seo beagan nas òige na ainmeanan ionadach Gàidhealach eile sna sgìreachdan anns a bheil iad seo.

Bha Gàidheil Ghlaschu sna meadhan-aoisean toigheach air gart sna h-ainmeanan-àite aca. Is e a’ chiad mhìr ann an Gart Creige agus, dh’fhaoidteadh, ann an dà ainm air am bu chòir Gart Seileach a chur ann an Gàidhlig an latha an-diugh: Gartsheugh agus Garsheugh. Is e a tha cuideachd aig bun ainmeanan den leithid Gart Sgadain, Gart Darach, Gart Thamlachd agus Gart Sguab (seallaibh gu h-ìseal). Tha ciall an ainm Gairbraid toinnte ach chaidh an t-ainm seo a chlàradh mar Gairdbraid ann an 1641 agus Gardbrade ann an 1795 is mar sin dh’fhaodadh gart a bhith aig bun an ainm seo cuideachd.

“Cha robh gart ga chur gu sònraichte air arbhar ann an ainmeanan-àite sna meadhan-aoisean, mar a tha e san àbhaist san latha an-diugh”

Gart an Abhaill/Gart nan Abhall

Gartnavel

Gartnawyll (1521); Gartnawile (1529); Gartnavile (1538)

gart + abhall

‘apple-tree/orchard-enclosure/farm’

 

Gartnavel is of course the place-name in Gartnavel General Hospital and Gartnavel Royal Hospital in the city’s west end. In the mid 19th century, the Ordnance Survey recorded the location of the old farm steading of Gartnavel, by that time occupied by miners, in what is now a residential area on the corner of Whittinghame Drive and Arnwood Drive. The Ordnance Survey map published in 1865 tells us that there was a well on the site of the old farm. The miners were probably working in local ironstone pits, five of which are marked on the 1865 map to the west and north of the old farm buildings.

In modern Gaelic, gart and gort tend to be used specifically to describe corn and cornfields but, in the medieval period when the name Gartnavel was first created, gart would have referred more generally to an enclosure or a farm. In some places in central Scotland, such as Clackmannanshire, gart may specifically have been used to describe relatively late settlements in previously uninhabited areas such as cleared woodland.

Gart is a very popular element in Glasgow place-names. It is clearly the first word in Gartcraig, and possibly in Gartsheugh, but it is found in other forms too: as Gar- in the likes of Garscadden, Garscube (see below) and Garsheugh (possibly); as Car- in Cardarroch; as Garth- in Garthamlock; and possibly as Gair- in Gairbraid. In Gaelic, ‘bh’ is often pronounced as ‘w’ or ‘v’ are pronounced in English and that explains the ‘w’ and ‘v’ recorded in Gartnavel’s historical forms.

“Gart is a very popular element in Glasgow place-names.”

Aithnichear an t-ainm-àite seo ann an ainmeanan sràide ann an ceann an iar-thuath Ghlaschu. Tha an t-ainm cuideachd ga chur san latha an-diugh air àrainn Oilthigh Ghlaschu sa cheàrn seo far a bheil ionadan agus goireasan rannsachaidh agus spòrs.

Tha e follaiseach gun robh meas aig muinntir Ghlaschu sna meadhan-aoisean air gart sna h-ainmeanan-àite aca (seallaibh air Gart an Abhaill/Gart nan Abhall gu h-àrd). Chan ann air arbhar gu sònraichte a bha am facal seo ga chur ann an ainmeanan-àite sna meadhan-aoisean, mar a tha e san àbhaist san latha an-diugh, ach air fearann cuairtichte agus air tuathanasan beaga dàrnach gu bitheanta. Is treòireach gun deach baile agus muileann a chlàradh sa cheàrn seo sa chairt rìoghail anns an deach an t-ainm a chlàradh ann an 1498. Uime sin, tha e glè choltach gun deach arbhar no pòr so-ithe eile a chur agus a bhuain an seo sna meadhan-aoisean agus gum faicteadh sguaban an seo aig àm buana.

“Tha e glè choltach gun deach arbhar no pòr so-ithe eile a chur is a bhuain an seo sna meadhan-aoisean agus gum faicteadh sguaban an seo aig àm buana.”

Gart Sguab

Garscube

Gartscub (1493); Garthsquib (1498)

gart + sguab

‘(corn-)sheaves-enclosure/farm’

 

Glaswegians will be familiar with this place-name in Garscube Road and Garscube Estate. The Garscube Campus of the University of Glasgow is home to the School of Veterinary Medicine and four research institutes in the College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, as well as outdoor sports facilities.

The Gaelic word gart is hugely popular in Glasgow place-names (see Gartnavel, above). For names like Garscube which were created in the medieval period, it is best translated as ‘enclosure’ or ‘farm’. The royal charter dating to 1498 which records the form Garthsquib also records that Garscube had a mill. The site of Garscube Mill is on the north side of the modern bridge over the River Kelvin at the junction of what is now Maryhill Road, Rannoch Drive and Killermont Avenue. It is very likely that corn or another edible grain was grown here in the medieval period and bundled in sheaves, given that the Gaelic word sguab is often used to refer to a sheaf or a bundle (particularly of corn). This is very interesting given that the modern Gaelic word gart is specifically used to describe corn and cornfields.